Oxymetholone pubchem

Dienogest was synthesized in 1979 in Jena , Germany under the leadership of Kurt Ponsold, was initially referred to as STS-557 . [16] [17] It was found that its potency was 10 times that of levonorgestrel . [41] The first product on the market to contain dienogest was a combined oral contraceptive pill (with ethinylestradiol), Valette, introduced in 1995 and made by Jenapharm . [18] In 2007, dienogest was introduced as Dinagest in Japan for the treatment of endometriosis, and it was subsequently marketed for this indication as Visanne in Europe and Australia in December 2009 and April 2010, respectively. [7] Qlaira was introduced in Europe in 2009 and Natazia was introduced in the United States in 2010. [19]

Binds to the glucocorticoid receptor. Unbound corticosteroids cross the membranes of cells such as mast cells and eosinophils, binding with high affinity to glucocorticoid receptors (GR). The results include alteration of transcription and protein synthesis, a decreased release of leukocytic acid hydrolases, reduction in fibroblast proliferation, prevention of macrophage accumulation at inflamed sites, reduction of collagen deposition, interference with leukocyte adhesion to the capillary wall, reduction of capillary membrane permeability and subsequent edema, reduction of complement components, inhibition of histamine and kinin release, and interference with the formation of scar tissue. In the management of asthma, the glucocorticoid receptor complexes down-regulates proinflammatory mediators such as interleukin-(IL)-1, 3, and 5, and up-regulates anti-inflammatory mediators such as IkappaB [inhibitory molecule for nuclear factor kappaB1], IL-10, and IL-12. The antiinflammatory actions of corticosteroids are also thought to involve inhibition of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (through activation of lipocortin-1 (annexin)) which controls the biosynthesis of potent mediators of inflammation such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes.

Like other AAS, boldenone is an agonist of the androgen receptor (AR). [5] The activity of boldenone is mainly anabolic , with a low androgenic potency. Boldenone will increase nitrogen retention, protein synthesis, increases appetite and stimulates the release of erythropoietin in the kidneys. [6] Boldenone was synthesized in an attempt to create a long-acting injectable metandienone , for androgen deficiency disorders. Boldenone acts similar to metandienone with fewer adverse androgenic effects. [ medical citation needed ] Although commonly compared to nandrolone , boldenone lacks progesterone receptor interaction and associated progestogenic side effects.

Oxymetholone pubchem

oxymetholone pubchem

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